1 edition of Modelling average winter smoke pollution over the Christchurch urban area found in the catalog.
Modelling average winter smoke pollution over the Christchurch urban area
Written in English
Offprint from: Weather and Climate, v.1 (1981) p.4-13.
|Statement||M. Stokes and P. D. Tyson.|
|Contributions||Tyson, P. D.|
concern over urban air quality in cities of colder climates. Atmospheric pollution has serious effects on public health, visibility problems, and ecological impacts and potentially contributes to global warming.1–5 In Chile, almost 90% of the population lives in polluted urban areas such as Santiago, Temuco, Rancagua, Osorno, etc.6,7. Smog is a type of intense air pollution. The word "smog" was coined in the early 20th century, and is a contraction (portmanteau) of the words smoke and fog to refer to smoky fog; its opacity, and odor. The word was then intended to refer to what was sometimes known as pea soup fog, a familiar and serious problem in London from the 19th century to the midth century.
The anthropologist Mary Douglas argued in her book Purity and Danger that the meaning of pollution varies by context, which is a way of saying social processes assign pollution its meaning. To say something is a pollutant, for Douglas, is to determine that some object or bit of matter is ‘out of place.’. Adverse respiratory effects of particulate air pollution have been identified by epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution from wood burning on school-age students in Christchurch, New Zealand, and to explore the utility of urine and exhaled breath condensate biomarkers of exposure in this population.
Smog is air pollution that reduces term "smog" was first used in the early s to describe a mix of smoke and smoke usually came from burning was common in industrial areas, and remains a familiar sight in cities today. Today, most of the smog we see is photochemical hemical smog is produced when sunlight reacts with nitrogen oxides . Smog is a kind of air pollution, originally named for the mixture of smoke and fog in the air. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area and is caused by a mixture of.
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MODELLING AVERAGE WINTER SMOKE POLLUTION OVER THE CHRISTCHURCH URBAN AREA M. Stokes and P. Tyson* University of Canterbury, Christchurch. ♦Visiting Professor from the Climatology Research Group, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannes-burg during ABSTRACT The Gifford-Hanna ATDL model has been applied to areal emissions of smoke.
In July (South Hemisphere winter), the Christchurch Air Pollution Study (CAPS) was performed in order to establish a comprehensive data set for documentation and analysis of nocturnal winter smog conditions in the Christchurch area. Field activities included meteorological surface measurements, tethersonde ascents, radiosoundings and sodar by: The city of Christchurch, located in the Canterbury region of New Zealand's South Island, suffers from severe particulate pollution episodes during the winter.
The air quality health guideline for PM 10 (a h average of 50 μg m −3 for particulate matter with a diameter of average 30 times per by: New Zealand – progress and prospects. Clean Air Environ Quality 23–29 Stokes MJ, Tyson PD () Modelling average winter smoke pollution over the Christchurch urban area.
Wea Climate 1:. MODELLING AVERAGE WINTER SMOKE POLLUTION OVER THE CHRISTCHURCH URBAN AREA applied to smoke concentrations over the Christchurch urban area to identify spatial relationships and grouping of. During the Christchurch Air Pollution Study in (CAPS) six PM monitoring sites (five PM 10, and one PM ) were located inside the Christchurch urban Fig.
1 ambient PM monitoring sites are marked by light round dots and numbered. An additional virtual site (marked “B” in Fig. 1) was located in North Brighton as a background site (in an area away from sources of PM.
Christchurch, New Zealand, specifically the relationship between ambient pollution levels in the central urban area, and emissions of air pollutants. A simple 'box' model was used – this treats the air as a layer over the city through which pollution is uniformly mixed.
Inputs to the model are the total emissions into the layer, the wind. The spatial distribution of the annual mean urban heat island (UHI) intensity pattern was analysed for the medium-sized city Novi Sad, Serbia, located on the low and flat Great Hungarian Plain.
The UHI pattern was determined by an empirical modelling method developed by (Balázs et al. This method was based on datasets from urban areas of Szeged and Debrecen (Hungary). Zawar-Reza P., Sturman AP. and Spronken-Smith RA. () Validation of The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) for prediction of pollution levels during winter ofover Christchurch, New Zealand.
Lodz, Poland: 5th International Conference on Urban Climate, 1 Sep Zawar-Reza P., Sturman AP., Oliphant AJ. and Spronken-Smith RA. winter nights, the burning of wood and coal for domestic heating, and exhaust emissions from vehicles [Pilgrim & Pullen, ].
Excessive winter smoke pollution is also experienced at times in some smaller South Island centres but their situations are not as well documented as that of Christchurch [Pilgrim &. During the winter months emissions of smoke and sulphur dioxide pollution were much greater in urban areas than during the summer months due to the burning of mainly coal for heat.
Smoke particles trapped in the fog gave it a yellow / black colour and these smogs often settled over cities for many days. Air Pollution Goes Back Way Further Than You Think Thousands of years ago, humans were adding lead fumes and other pollutants to the air Pollutants hang in.
Air pollution has become an increasingly serious environmental problem in China. Especially in winter, the air pollution in northern China becomes even worse due to winter heating. The “coal to gas” policy, which uses natural gas to replace coal in the heating system in winter, was implemented in Beijing in the year However, the effects of this policy reform have not been examined.
Air quality in rural areas remains a neglected issue so far. The common belief is that rural areas are free from air pollution. On the contrary air quality in the rural areas all over the world and particularly in the developing countries may be more polluted than some of the urban areas.
The study was undertaken in winter in Christchurch, New Zealand, a city of ~, situated on the east coast of the South Island. a five km 2 area of grassland and trees to the immediate west of the CBD but surrounded by the urban area on all sides.
On average, pollution levels measured at the school were % lower than those. For up to 50 days each winter, the level of PM 10 particles in the air in Christchurch exceeds Ministry for the Environment guidelines. Research indicates each year this pollution is responsible for: serious health problems for several thousand people, such as respiratory and cardiac illness (causing them to take time off work, which affects the local economy).
Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs.
Christchurch: deaths up to 16% higher in woodsmoke polluted areas Average PM10 pollution in Christchurch, NZ, varies from 20 µg/m3 in residential areas with lots of chimneys (see map). More than three quarters (76%) of pollution is from woodsmoke, with only 13% from industry, % from.
For the first time in history, more than half the world's population lives in urban areas. This is a recent phenomenon; in only 14% lived in urban areas, but this number is expected to grow to 60% by and 66% by Despite this rapid urbanisation, cities and urban areas occupy less than 2% of the Earth's land surface.
As epidemiological studies continue to demonstrate a link between particulate pollution and health risks, including increased mortality, the model ordinance seeks to regulate the largest single stationary source of PM in the Bay Area, woodsmoke.
On an average winter day, at some Bay Area locations, as much as 40 percent of the PM pollution. The city has strict requirements for domestic home heating in order to limit air pollution.
In winter, it is not uncommon for snow to fall. Demographics. On 6 Marchthe area administered by the Christchurch City Council had a population ofmaking it the second largest in New Zealand, and the largest city in the South Island.Christchurch (/ ˈ k r aɪ s tʃ ɜːr tʃ /; Māori: Ōtautahi) is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks is home toresidents, making it New Zealand's third-most populous city behind Auckland and Wellington.
Objective To assess the effect of reductions in air pollution from biomass smoke on daily mortality. Design Age stratified time series analysis of daily mortality with Poisson regression models adjusted for the effects of temperature, humidity, day of week, respiratory epidemics, and secular mortality trends, applied to an intervention and control community.